Minggu, 03 Februari 2013

Dasar-dasar Arsitektur: Pengertian dan Pengantar Arsitektur

I. PENGERTIAN DAN PENGANTAR ARSITEKTUR

1. PENGERTIAN ARSITEKTUR

Architecture ar·chi·tec·ture [arki tèkchur] noun

1. building design: the art and science of designing and constructing buildings

2. building style: a style or fashion of building, especially one that is typical of a period of history or of a particular place

3. structure of computer system: the design, structure, and behavior of a computer system, microprocessor, or system program, including the characteristics of individual components and how they interact - network architecture

Microsoft® Encarta® 2006. © 1993-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Architecture is the art and science of designing buildings and other physical structures

Architecture is both the process and the product of designing and constructing spaces that reflect functional, aesthetic and environmental considerations

Architecture, a wider definition may comprise all design activities from the macro-level (urban design, landscape architecture) to the micro-level (construction details and furniture)

In fact, architecture today may refer to the activity of designing any kind of system

2. PENGERTIAN ARSITEK

Architect [a rki tèkt] (plural ar·chi·tects) noun

1. building designer: somebody whose job is to design buildings and advise on their construction

2. creator: somebody who creates or invents something - the architect of her own fortune

3. computer system designer: the developer of the structure of a computer system or program Mid-16th century. Directly or via French and Italian < Latin architectus < Greek arkhitekton "chief builder" < tekton "builder"

Microsoft® Encarta® 2006. © 1993-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Gambar profesi arsitek.

3. PENGANTAR ARSITEKTUR

Architecture (building): the practice of building design and its resulting products; customary usage refers only to designs and structures that are culturally significant. Architecture is to building, as literature is to the printed word.

Vitruvius, a 1st-century BC Roman, wrote encyclopedically about architecture, and the English poet Sir Henry Wotton was quoting him in his charmingly phrased dictum: “Well building hath three conditions: Commoditie, Firmenes, and Delight.”

 Ilustrasi Vitruvius, bapak arsitektur, sedang presentasi.

More prosaically, one would say today that architecture must satisfy its intended uses, must be technically sound, and must convey aesthetic meaning. But the best buildings are often so well constructed that they outlast their original use. They then survive not only as beautiful objects, but as documents of the history of cultures, achievements in architecture that testify to the nature of the society that produced them. These achievements are never wholly the work of individuals.

Architecture is a social art.

Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2006. © 1993-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

3.A. ARSITEKTUR SEBAGAI PROFESI

Profesi yang dikerjakan oleh Arsitek: merancang bangunan, kota, interior dll.

3.B. ARSITEKTUR SEBAGAI DISIPLIN

Keilmuan tentang lingkungan binaan termasuk bangunan, kota, taman, interior; tentang langgam, sejarah arsitektur, ilmu konstruksi bangunan, perilaku meruang, antropologi bangunan, psikologi ruang, estetika dll (tidak selalu digunakan langsung dalam profesi Arsitek).

3.B.i MENGAPA ARSITEKTUR PERLU DIRANCANG?
  • Permasalahan membangun semakin kompleks
  • Sumberdaya untuk membangun semakin terbatas
  • Efisiensi
  • Semakin banyak pihak terlibat
  • Diperlukan pertanggung-jawaban
3.B.ii MENGAPA ARSITEKTUR PERLU PERANCANG?

Dibutuhkan:
  • Orang yang kompeten, memiliki pengetahuan, ketrampilan dan sikap profesional
  • Perlu penanggung-jawab perancangan dan pembangunan

3.C. ARSITEKTUR SEBAGAI PRODUK
  • Arsitektur (bangunan)
  • Arsitektur kota (urban design)
  • Arsitektur lanskap
  • Arsitektur interior
  • Arsitektur sebagai lingkungan binaan (built environment)
  • Arsitektur perkapalan (naval architecture)?
  • Bagunan
  1. Bangunan Gedung
  2. Rumah
  3. Kantor
  4. Toko
  5. Terminal
  6. Bangunan Ibadah
  • Bangunan Non-Gedung (civil works)
  1. Benteng
  2. Stasiun
  3. Jalan
  4. Bunker
  5. Jembatan
  6. Dam
  7. Turap
  8. Menara Air
  9. Bangunan Utilitarian
  10. Gudang
  11. Gardu listrik, dll ?
3.D. PERANAN ARSITEK

Arsitek merancang :
  • massa bangunan
  • tata letak massa/ruang
  • wajah bangunan
  • konstruksi arsitektural
  • spesifikasi bahan arsitektural
  • estimasi harga
  • membuat presentasi
  • mengkoordinasikan disiplin lain
Ahli lain :
  • Struktur / Sipil (struktur tanah)
  • Mekanikal (AC, plumbing, lift,eskalator)
  • Elektrikal (daya, penerangan, penangkal petir, data, tata suara, keamanan)
  • Fisika Bangunan (akustik, kenyamanan termal)
  • Interior (furnitur, finishing)
  • Seniman / pematung
  • Arsitek Lanskap/pertamanan
  • Estimator harga
3.E. LINGKUP PEKERJAAN ARSITEK
  • Menyusun program
  • Menyusun konsep
  • Menyusun siteplan
  • Menyusun pra-rancangan / rancangan skematik
  • Mengembangkan rancangan
  • Menyusun gambar kerja
  • Membantu pelelangan, memilih kontraktor
  • Mengawasi pelaksanaan pembangunan
  • Membangun (dalam kontrak rancangbangun / design-build)
3.F. PIHAK-PIHAK YANG TERLIBAT DALAM PEMBANGUNAN
  • Penyandang dana
  • Pemilik proyek (klien)
  • Pengguna (penghuni, penyewa, masyarakat)
  • Konsultan (planner, arsitek, insinyur struktur, insinyur mekanikal/elektrikal dll.)
  • Pelaksana (kontraktor)
  • Manajer konstruksi
  • Pemerintah daerah/kota (pemberi ijin)
  • Pengembang
  • Konsultan pendamping (misalnya LSM)
"Design is the conversation between creativity and context." (Kevin Low)

 
Gambar Burj Khalifa (Menara Khalifah), sebuah produk arsitektur tertinggi sepanjang sejarah manusia, diarsiteki oleh firma arsitektur Skidmore, Owings and Merrill.


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